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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines

Author Guidelines

 Please read and follow these instructions carefully; doing so will ensure that the publication of your manuscript is as rapid and efficient as possible. The Publisher reserves the right to return manuscripts that are not prepared in accordance with these instructions.


  1. Information for Authors

 Prior to submission, authors are requested to create an account and Register. Please be reminded that only the corresponding author is allowed to register for every submission. If you have an account, enter your USER ID and Password and click Log In. If you have forgotten your password, click the Forgot Password.

Get a quick view on how to create a user profile and a step-by-step guide to submitting an article.


  1. Submission of manuscripts

 Authors should submit Word files by the Online Manuscript Submission System. If you have any queries regarding your submission to this journal, please email Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission.


  1. ORCID

 ORCID ( provides an identifier for individuals to use with their name as they engage in research, scholarship, and innovation activities. PPMJ supports the use of ORCID and provides authors with the facility to include their ORCID identifier on submission, in order to enable transparent and trustworthy connections between researchers, their contributions, and affiliations.


  1. Cover Letter

 All submissions should be accompanied by a cover letter that includes a brief overview of the manuscript and the corresponding and contacting author contact information including full name, e-mail address, phone number, and mailing address (corresponding author and contacting author). It should also specify the number of display items (figures and tables), the number of attachments (manuscript, figures, supplementary information if any), and their formats. It must include a statement indicating that the article has not been published in another publication and is not being submitted simultaneously to another journal. 


  1. Preparation of the manuscript

       5.1 General

 Papers must be clearly written in English. Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word format. The format of different types of articles is as under:


         5.1.1 English

 Authors are strongly encouraged to follow the principles of sound technical writing. Manuscripts that do not meet acceptable English standards or lack clarity may be rejected. Authors whose native language is not English may wish to collaborate with a colleague whose English skills are more advanced.


        5.1.2 Page Setup and Fonts

 Top, bottom, left, and right margins should be 1 inch. Use “Times New Roman” font throughout the manuscript, in the sizes and styles shown in Table 1.

 Table 1: Recommended fonts and sizes.

Style name

Brief description

Article Title

16 pt, bold

Author Names

10 pt, bold

Author Affiliations

10 pt


9 pt


9 pt

Heading 1

12 Pt, bold

Heading 2

12 pt, italic

Heading 3

12 pt, italic

Body Text

11.5 pt

Figure caption

9 pt

Table caption

9 pt


        5.2 Section headings

Headings must be concise, with a clear indication of the distinction between the hierarchy of headings. Also, Section headings should be left justified, with the first letter capitalized and numbered consecutively, starting with the Introduction. Sub-section headings should be in capital and lower-case italic letters, numbered 1.1, 1.2, etc, and left justified, with second and subsequent lines indented. You may need to insert a page break to keep a heading with its text. See the following examples:

3 Subsection Headings (Heading 1)

3.1 Subsection Headings (Heading 2)

Subsection headings should be numbered 1.1, 1.2, etc.

3.1.1 Sub-subsection headings (Heading 3)

Sub-subsection headings should be numbered 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc. Only the first word is capitalized.


        5.3 Types of Paper

        5.3.1 Format of Research Articles

Research articles present original research and address a clearly stated specific hypothesis or question. Papers should provide novel approaches and new insights into the problem addressed. A research article should divide into the following headings:

  • Title page
  • Author's information
  • Present address
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figures


        5.3.2 Format of Review Articles

Review articles are an attempt by one or more authors to sum up the current state of the research on a particular topic. Ideally, the author searches for everything relevant to the topic, and then sorts it all out into a coherent view of the "state of the art" as it now stands. Interested scientists may write their review articles under the following headings:

  • Title page
  • Author's information
  • Keywords
  • Present address
  • Abstract
  • Text
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figures


        5.3.3 Format of Short Communications

A short communication is for a concise, but independent report representing a significant contribution. Short communication is not intended to publish preliminary results. It should be no more than 2500 words, and could include two figures or tables. It should have at least 8 references. Scientists may prepare their short communications under the following headings:

  • Title page
  • Author's information
  • Present address
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figures


        5.4 Title page

A title of not more than 12 words should be provided. Titles do not normally include numbers, acronyms, abbreviations or punctuation. They should include sufficient detail for indexing purposes but be general enough for readers outside the field to appreciate what the paper is about.


        5.5 Author's information and present address

Author name: Author’s initials are used for their first name. If an author has more than one initial do not put any spaces between initials. Where a resource has multiple authors, all authors are listed by last name and then first initial separated by commas. All contributing authors’ names should be added to the journal submission, and their names arranged in the correct order for publication.

  • Correct email addresses should be supplied for each author in their separate author accounts
  • The full name of each author must be present in their author account in the exact format they should appear for publication, including or excluding any middle names or initials as required
  • The affiliation of each contributing author should be correct in their individual author account. The affiliation listed should be where they were based at the time that the research for the paper was conducted

First Author1, Second Author2, Third Author1,2*

1First affilication, Address; City and Postcode, Country

2Second affilication, Address; City and Postcode, Country

Corresponding author: Tel.: +????????, Fax: +???????

Email: your email @ your institute is preferred


        5.6 Abstract

An Abstract is required for every paper; it should succinctly summarize the reason for the work, the main findings, and the conclusions of the study. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. Do not include artwork, tables, elaborate equations or references to other parts of the paper or to the reference listing at the end. The reason is that the Abstract should be understandable in itself to be suitable for storage in textual information retrieval systems. See below an abstract guide for practical help and guidance:

  • Purpose (mandatory)
  • Design/methodology/approach (mandatory)
  • Findings (mandatory)
  • Research limitations/implications (if applicable)
  • Practical implications (if applicable)
  • Social implications (if applicable)
  • Originality/value (mandatory)

Authors should avoid the use of personal pronouns within the structured abstract and body of the paper (e.g. "this paper investigates..." is correct, "I investigate..." is incorrect).


        5.7 Keywords

Supply at least 3–5 keywords, separated with semicolons. Authors should provide appropriate and short keywords in the article submission process that encapsulate the principal topics of the paper.


        5.8 Introduction

This section should be succinct, with no subheadings. State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

  • Purpose 1: Introduction of the problem
  • Begin by identifying the research issue.
  • Purpose 2: Development of the background
  • Review the pertinent literature
  • For each article you review, be sure that the reader knows:
    • What variables were manipulated
    • What variables were measured
    • The results and conclusions
  • The review should be concise, but sometime it is necessary to give a more complete review (the sample provided gives a fair amount of detail).
  • Use the author-date method of citation (author’s or authors’ last name(s) and date of publication for citation).
  • The ampersand (&) is used when the reference appears within parentheses.
  • If there are more than three authors, mention all authors the first time. After that use the first author and et al., as in “Gerbasi et al. (1977) pointed out …”
  • Purpose 3: Statement of purpose and rationale
  • Be very explicit: “The purpose of …” “It was hypothesized that …”
  • The literature reviewed is the basis for the predictions.
  • Researchers frequently base their predictions on theories.
  • Limit the use of “I” or “we” in all sections of the manuscript .
  • There is no formal limit to the length of the introduction, but the typical range is between two and five type-written double spaced pages.


        5.9 Materials and Methods

This part should contain sufficient detail to reproduce reported data. It can be divided into subsections if several methods are described. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

  • Provide a complete description of the materials you used.
  • Psychologists use the metric system. Therefore, all measurements are given in m, mm, or cm, NOT in inches or feet.
  • Either the apparatus OR materials heading is used. The apparatus heading is used if you are primarily describing equipment. The materials heading is used if you are describing word lists, reading material, etc.
  • Manufacturer’s name and the model number of any apparatus commercially available must be reported.
  • Report all physical characteristics ( e.g., measurements, color, intensity of lights or tones) of self-made apparatus. The details provided must permit the reader to duplicate the apparatus.
  • Review what was done to the participants from the beginning to end of the study.
  • Instructions are included verbatim only if they are an experimental manipulation. Otherwise, they are paraphrased.
  • The design of the experiment and how participants were assigned to each group are mentioned in this section.
  • Group abbreviations: It is easier for readers if meaningful initials or numerals are used for group names rather than  meaningless letters or numbers.
  • Avoid sexist language: use “they” rather than “he” or “she”, except when a male or female is explicitly referred to.


        5.10 Rules for Using Numbers

  • General Rule: Numbers 10 or above are expressed as numerals. Nine or below are written as words.
  • The rules for when to write a number as a word or as a numeral are probably the hardest to learn because there are many exceptions to this rule. It is wise to always refer back to the APA Publication Manual.
  • Some exceptions to the general rule:
    • Measurements are always numerals.
    • Statistical functions are always numerals.
    • Groups of numbers with one value above 10 are always numerals.
    • Numbers that indicate a specific place in a series: Figure 1, Group 4, Trial 6 are numerals.
    • If a sentence begins with a number, it is always a word.
  • Document any variations in procedures. 


        5.11 Results and Discussion

This section may each be divided by subheadings or may be combined. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. This should explore the significance of the results of the work, don’t repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


        5.12 Conclusions

This section should clearly explain the main conclusions of the work, highlighting its importance and relevance.


        5.13 Tables

All tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals. Headings should be placed above tables, left justified. Leave one line space between the heading and the table. All lines should be used within a table, to distinguish the column headings from the body of the table, and immediately above and below the table. Footnotes can be included below the table. Tables cannot duplicate data contained in the text. Tables must be sent in Microsoft Word and have no links to other documents. Tables prefer be embedded into the text than supplied separately. Ensure that any superscripts or asterisks are shown next to the relevant items and have corresponding explanations displayed as footnotes to the table, figure or plate. Below is an example which authors may find useful.

 Table 1: An example of a table.

Column heading

Column A

Column A

An entry



Another entry



Another entry




        5.14 Figures 

All Figures should be of high quality, legible and numbered consecutively with arabic numerals. All photographs, schemas, graphs, charts, web pages/screenshots, line drawings and diagrams are to be referred to as figures. Line drawings should be good quality scans or true electronic output. Low-quality scans are not acceptable. Please ensure that the prepared electronic image files print at a legible size and are of a high quality for publication.

Figures created in MS Word, MS PowerPoint, MS Excel, Illustrator should be supplied in their native formats. Electronic figures created in other applications should be copied from the origination software and pasted into a blank MS Word document or saved and imported into an MS Word document or alternatively create a .pdf file from the origination software.

Figures which cannot be supplied as above are acceptable in the standard image formats which are: .pdf, .ai, and .eps. If you are unable to supply graphics in these formats then please ensure they are .tif, . .png, .jpg or .bmp at a resolution of at least 300dpi and at least 10cm wide.

Photographic images should be submitted electronically and of high quality. They should be saved as .tif, .png or .jpg files at a resolution of at least 300dpi and at least 10cm wide.

Figures prefer to be embedded into the text and not supplied separately. Lettering and symbols should be clearly defined either in the caption or in a legend provided as part of the figure. Figures should be placed at the top or bottom of a page wherever possible, as close as possible to the first reference to them in the paper.

The figure number and caption should be typed below the illustration and left justified.  Artwork has no text along the side of it in the main body of the text. However, if two images fit next to each other, these may be placed next to each other to save space, see Figure 1.

Figure 1: Please give a description of your figure. Be certain that all abbreviations are explained in either the figure or the figure caption. This includes terms that have already been defined within the paper. Treat each figure as its own item. Use capital letters (e.g. A, B, C) for parts of figures.

Equations and formulae should be typed with Arabic numerals.

They should also be separated from the surrounding text by one space.


        5.15 Additional information

These and the Reference headings are in bold but have no numbers. Text below continues as normal. Authors who wish to include these items should save them together in an MS Word file to be uploaded with the submission. Acknowledgments, disclaimers, and conflicts of interest can be added after the conclusion, and before references. The acknowledgements may credit others for their guidance or help. Also funding sources or sponsorship information should be stated. The acknowledgments section does not have a section number.


        5.15.1 Acknowledgments

This unnumbered section is used to identify people who have aided the authors in accomplishing the work presented, to state conflicts of interest, and to acknowledge sources of funding. Acknowledgments should be inserted at the end of the paper, before the references, not as a footnote to the title. Use an unnumbered section heading for the Acknowledgments, similar to the References heading.


        5.15.2 Research funding          

Authors must declare all sources of external research funding in their article and a statement to this effect should appear in the Acknowledgements section. Authors should describe the role of the funder or financial sponsor in the entire research process, from study design to submission.


        5.15.3 Author Contributions

Authors are required to include a statement to specify the contributions of each co-author. The statement can be up to several sentences long, describing the tasks of individual authors referred to by their initials.


        5.15.4 Human and Animal Rights

If the work involves the use of human/animal subjects, each manuscript should contain the following set of declaration at the end of the manuscript.


        5.16 References

In the text: References must be cited in the text mentioning the last name of the author and year between parentheses (Mohamed, 2014). In case of two authors, use & between them (Mohamed & Ahmed, 2014). When there are three or more authors, mention only the first author followed by et al. like (Mohamed et al., 2014). When two or more references are cited in the same parenthesis, the authors should be in chronological order. And if they have the same year, they should be in alphabetical order. Moreover, if there is more than one reference of the same author and the same year, they should be indicated with letters.

At the end of the paper, in the References section the literature should be arranged in alphabetical order. If they have the same author, they should be in chronological order. Only papers accepted for publication or published may be cited, not normally > 30 in total. Give full details as per the examples below


Material Type

Reference List/Bibliography

Journal (article)

Ali A, 2018. Role of hydrogen peroxide in management of root rot and wilt disease of thyme plant. Journal of Phytopathology and Pest Management 5(3): 1–13.

Journal (online)

Gibbs MJ, Ziegler A, Robinson DJ, Waterhouse PM, Cooper JI, 1996. Carrot mottle mimic virus (CMoMV): a second umbravirus associated with carrot motley dwarf disease recognized by nucleic acid hybridization. Molecular Plant Pathology Online [] 1996/1111gibbs.


Sutton BC, 1980. The Coelomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, UK.

Book (edited)

Palti J, Kranz J, eds, 1980. Comparative EpidemiologyA Tool for Better Disease Management. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Book (chapter)

Jones CS, Smith N, Brown RS, 1979. Biology of diseases caused by Botrytis spp. In: Smith N, Brown RS, eds. Diseases of Vegetables. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, pp. 40–9.

Conference proceedings (published)

McIntosh RA, 1992. Catalogues of gene symbols for wheat. In: Miller TE, Koebner RM, eds. Proceedings of the Seventh International Wheat Genetics Symposium, IPSR, Cambridge, UK, pp. 1225–323.

Agency publication

Harvey JM, Pentzer WT, 1960. Market Diseases of Grapes and Other Small Fruits. USDA publication no. 189 (Agriculture Handbook Series), United States Department of Agriculture Washington, USA.

Dissertation or thesis

Lenné JM, 1978. Studies of the Biology and Taxonomy of Colletotrichum Species. PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Online material

Lu HJ, Kottke R, Martin J, Bai G, Haley S, Rudd J, 2011. Identification and validation of molecular markers for marker assisted selection of Wsm2 in wheat. In: Plant and Animal Genomes XIX Conference, abstract W433. []. Accessed 20 April 2012.


For authors using EndNote, PPMJ provides an output style that supports the formatting of in-text citations and reference list.


        5.17 Proofs

All manuscripts will undergo some editorial modification, so it is important to check proofs carefully. PDF page proofs will be sent via e-mail to the corresponding author for checking. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked and returned within 48 hours. Corrections should be returned by annotated PDF e-mail.


        5.18 Post-production corrections 

Corrections are made if the publication record is seriously affected by the academic accuracy of published information. Where these amendments concern peer-reviewed material, the correction will be published as a formal notice (erratum) in a subsequent issue.

Research Articles

See Guidelines for Author for the instructions and to download template

Review Articles

See Guidelines for Author for the instructions and to download template

Short Communications

See Guidelines for Author for the instructions and to download template

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