Journal of Phytopathology and Pest Management <p><strong>Journal of Phytopathology and Pest Management</strong>&nbsp;(PPMJ) publishes fundamental and applied original research on all areas of Plant Pathology and Plant Protection. These include but are not limited to:</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Plant diseases are caused&nbsp;by: bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, phytoplasmas, nematodes, parasitic higher plants, protozoa, viruses, viroids and environmental toxins</p> <ul> <li class="show">Plant stress and abiotic disorders</li> <li class="show">Forest pests and diseases</li> <li class="show">Weed disease control</li> <li class="show">Postharvest disease control</li> <li class="show">Animal pests control</li> <li class="show">Biological control</li> <li class="show">Integrated Pest Management</li> <li class="show">New control strategies</li> <li class="show">Evaluated of pesticides</li> <li class="show">Bacteriology</li> <li class="show">Entomology</li> <li class="show">Nematology</li> <li class="show">Mycology</li> <li class="show">Epidemiology</li> <li class="show">Disease etiology</li> <li class="show">Host-pathogen biochemistry and cell biology</li> <li class="show">Ecology of plant disease</li> <li class="show">Host genetics and resistance</li> <li class="show">Description of new pathogen species</li> <li class="show">Report of new disease or pest</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;The criteria for judging manuscripts are based on novelty, importance, scientific validity, and interest to the readers.</p> <p>PPMJ is a fully open access journal and applies Creative Commons Attribution as long as the research work (publication) is acknowledged and cited properly.</p> <p>All published articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute.</p> <p>PPMJ reviewers can add their reviews performed for the journal to their Publons or ReviewCredits accounts.</p> Dr. Mohamed Seleim, Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), 71524 Assiut, Egypt en-US Journal of Phytopathology and Pest Management 2356-8577 <p>Authors who publish with Journal of Phytopathology and Pest Management agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License (CC BY-NC). This allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Archives of Agricultural Sciences Journal is an Open Access Journal, and articles published are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License (CC BY-NC). Readers may copy, distribute, and display the work for non commercial purposes with the proper citation of the original work. However, the journal retains the right to exploit subsidiary rights on behalf of the authors.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractural arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g. post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> <ol start="4"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process with full disclosure to the journal, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Following publication in Archives of Agricultural Sciences Journal, the author should update the repository, and include a citation and link to the published work.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Click&nbsp;here&nbsp;for more information on <a href="/index.php/ppmj/manager/setup/Licensing%20policy">Licensing policy</a></p> Control of root rot disease of sugar beet using certain antioxidants and fungicides <p>This study was carried out to investigate the effect of five chemical inducers <em>i.e. </em>salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, catechol, citric acid and potassium silicate and six fungicides <em>i.e.</em> Actamyl70%, Chlorothalonil 50%, Evito 48%, Shenzy 34%, Pyrus 40% and Fentobein 32.5% in order to control <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> and <em>Macrophomina phaseolina</em> which infect sugar beet roots. The antioxidants, catechol and salicylic acid achieved the best disease control at all rates of application followed by citric acid and potassium silicate, respectively. Concerning fungicides, Shenzy 34% gave noticeable control in disease reduction followed by Evito 48% and Fentobein 32.5%, respectively. Usage of antioxidants as chemical inducers for enhancing plant resistance and capability of defying diseases is well recommended as fungicide alternatives due to their safe influence on human health. But, fungicides are still the most widespread used compounds in disease management strategies, based on their compliant application, reliable and efficient results than any other safer chemical or natural compound which controls the disease by reducing the losses, not by eradicating the disease in which fungicides can do successfully.</p> Mohamed A. Eliwa Mohamed M. El-Sheikh Aly Shaaban M. Saber ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-15 2021-02-15 1 14 Effect of some biofertilizers and biofungicides applications on control onion root-rot disease <p>Five biofertilizers and biofungicides namely, (Cerialien, Biogen, Nitrobein, Phosphoren and Potassiumag) and (Rhizo-N, Bio-Arc, Plant-guard, Biozied and T-34) were used to evaluate their ability to protect onion plants (Giza 6 Mohassan var.) against root rot diseases, which mainly caused by <em>Fusarium oxysporum </em>f.sp<em>. cepae </em>causing Fusarium basal rot,<em> Pyrenochaeta terrestris </em>causing pink root rot and<em> Sclerotium cepivorum&nbsp; </em>causing white rot disease as well as improving growth and yield of onion under greenhouse conditions during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 growing seasons. Data clearly showed that the tested biofungicides decreased the disease severity of onion bulb root rot as compared with the check treatment. The treated soil with different biofungicides significantly decreased the disease severity of onion&nbsp; root rot diseases compared with the control. T-34 biocontrol at the rate of 2 and 3 g/kg soil was the most effective biofungicide in minimizing disease severity caused with the tested fungi followed by Biozied and Rhizo-N at the same concentrations during 2019/2020growing seasons. Also, Treated transplants with commercial biofertilizers <em>i.e.</em> Cerialien, Biogen, Nitrobein, Phosphoren and Potassiumag at 3 g/Kg soil and planted in infested soil with tested pathogenic fungi caused the highest reduction of the tested pathogenic fungi under greenhouse. As mean treated transplants with Nitrobein gave the greatest reduction of root rot diseases caused by <em>F. oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>cepae</em>, <em>P. terrestris</em> and <em>S. cepivorum</em>, when used under greenhouse conditions during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 growing seasons. Moreover, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters <em>i.e.</em> fresh bulb weight, dry bulb weight and bulb diameter as compared with the check treatment.</p> Ramadan R. A. Hussein Mohamed M. El-Sheikh Aly Abd-Elal A. Mohamed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-17 2021-02-17 15 28 Antifungal activity of bioagents and plant extracts against certain fungal diseases of potatoes <p>Twenty-six fungal isolates were obtained from potato plants and tubers growing in different localities in Egypt. The isolates were identified as 11 <em>Rhizoctonia solani,</em> 8 <em>Sclerotinia sclerotiorum </em>and 7 <em>Fusarium</em> spp. The 26 isolates were screened due to their pathogenic capabilities and the most pathogenic isolate among each of the three obtained genera was selected for this study. <em>In vitro</em> studies included the effect of 7 bacterial isolates, 6 <em>Trichoderma</em> isolates, as well as 6 plant extracts at four rates of application against the three fungal pathogens, <em>Trichoderma</em> <em>harzianum </em>(T5) achieved the highest mycelial growth inhibition, followed by <em>T. asperellum</em> (T34) and <em>T.</em>&nbsp; <em>harzianum </em>(T10) isolates. Additionally, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (BS2) recorded the best mycelial growth inhibition against the three tested fungi, followed by <em>B. subtilis</em> (BS1) and <em>B.megatirum</em>(BM2). On the subject of plant extracts, garlic extract gave the greatest reduction of the mycelial growth with all rates of application, followed by henna and ginger extracts. Field experiments were conducted during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 growing seasons to evaluate bioagent activities as well as plant extracts in reducing disease severity caused by the three fore-mentioned pathogenic fungi. <em>Trichoderma</em> <em>harzianum</em> (T5) exhibited the highest disease reduction <em>in vivo,</em> followed by (T34) and <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens </em>(PF2), as compared with the control. Under greenhouse conditions, garlic extract decreased disease severity of both <em>Fusarium </em>sp and <em>S. sclerotiorum</em>, followed by henna and ginger extracts. On the other hand, henna extract came in the first order in reducing disease severity caused by <em>R.solani</em>, followed by ginger and garlic, as compared with the control. On the whole, <em>Trichoderma</em> <em>harzianum </em>(T5) and <em>T. asperellum</em> (T34) were the best treatments, those reduced diseases severity to the greatest extent if compared with the other treatments and the control.</p> Ahmed B. Mohamed Mohamed M. El-Sheikh Aly Rafeek M. I. El-Sharkawy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-19 2021-03-19 29 45 Biological control of some garlic diseases using antagonistic fungi and bacteria <p>Eight <em>Trichoderma </em>isolates which isolated from rhizospher of garlic plant and one isolte <em>T. asperellum </em>was obtained on PDA medium, from the commercial product (Biocontrol T34).&nbsp; Also eleven isolates of rhizobacteria namly; <em>B. subtilis, </em>two isolates (Bs1 and Bs2)<em>, B.megaterium </em>two isolates (Bm1and Bm2),<em> P. fluorescens </em>two isolates (Pf1 and Pf2), four isolates <em>A. chroococcum</em> (Az1, Az2, Az3 and Az4) and <em>Penibacillus polymyxa </em>one isolate&nbsp; were tested in vitro to study thir ability against <em>S.</em> <em>ceprivorum</em> , <em>F. oxysporum</em> f. sp. cepae&nbsp; and <em>P. terrestris </em>which caused white rot, basal rot and pink rot of garlic plants, respectively. The results showed that <em>Trichoderma </em>isolate number (T3) gave the highest reduction on maycelial growth of three pathogenic fungi, which adentified as <em>Trichoderma harzianum,</em> followed <em>T</em>. <em>asperellum</em> (T34), then isolate (T5) and isolate (T7). which adentified as <em>Trichoderma harzianum </em>and <em>Trichoderma hamatum</em>, respectively. <em>Pseudomonas.</em> <em>fluorescens </em>isolate (Pf1), followed by <em>P.</em> <em>fluorescens </em>(Pf2),&nbsp; <em>B. subtilis </em>(Bs2), <em>A. chroococcum</em> (Az4)<em>&nbsp; </em>and <em>B. subtilis</em>&nbsp; (Bs1), then<em>&nbsp; A. chroococcum </em>(Az2), <em>B. megaterium</em> (Bm2) and<em> Penibacillus polymyxa</em>&nbsp; gave highly antagonistic effect was clear against the tested fungi respectively. A pot experiment was crried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of commercial biofungicides biozeid , Bio-Arc, Plant Guard, T34 biocontrol and Rhizo-N, and biofertilizers Nitrobien, phosphoren, Biogen, Potassiumag, Ascobein and carialin were evaluated individually against garlic white rot, basal rot and pink rot diseases. Data showed that treated soil with biofungicides and biofertilizers reduced white rot, basal rot and pink rot diseases compared with the control. Treated soil with Rhizo-N, T34 biocontrol, Phosphoren and Nitrobien gave the best reduction of disease severity throughout two successive growing seasons.</p> Mohamed A. Abd-Elaziz Mohamed M. El-Sheikh Aly Abd-Elal A. Mohamed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-20 2021-03-20 46 63 Evaluation of some safe alternative agents against the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica Lederer infesting sugarcane at Sohag governorate, Egypt <p>Some different control methods, mechanical, biological and four plant extracts were tested individually against the pink stem borer, <em>Sesamia critica</em> Lederer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in both plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane during 2018 and 2019 at Sohag governorate, Egypt. Data were recorded on the basis of the percent infestation (dead hearts) of <em>S. critica</em> from April to June, while the infestation reduction percentage and population density were recorded based on the percent of infestation. The results showed that, all the control methods significantly reduced borer infestation as compared with control plots. Data demonstrated that water extracts of marjoram and rosemary achieved the lowest infestation (2.18 - 3.02%) and (1.42 – 2.00%), while the highest infestation was recorded in biological control treatment (18.00 – 13.47%) in two seasons 2018 and 2019 respectively. These results could be used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for the pink stem borer, <em>Sesamia critica</em> control in sugarcane.</p> Olwan A. M. Ali Shalby M. El-Awady Mohmmed K. Al-Ansare Reda M. Saba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 64 70 Morphological, morphometrical and molecular identification of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) infecting banana in Assiut governorate, Egypt <p>Plant-parasitic nematodes are extremely dangerous pests in a variety of economically important crops. Root-knot nematodes (RKN) <em>Meloidogyne</em> spp. are between the major important pests causing serious crops havoc worldwide because of their wide geographical distribution and variety of hosts. Therefore, both of identification that is true and trustworthy of these pests is required for evaluating various suitable management strategies. This study, aimed to characterize morphological, morphometric and molecularly isolate of <em>Meloidogyne</em> related to banana plants. Second-stage juveniles (body length, tail length, stylet length, hyaline terminus length, and DEGO) were used in morphometric and morphological studies and female in perineal patterns. The results revealed that the identified nematode species, <em>Meloidogyne javanica</em>, is the most common root knot nematode species in all three localities. To prove the identification, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based experiment using a species-specific sequence described amplified regions (SCAR) primer series was used. The Fjav/Rjav primer effectively enhanced SCAR markers of 670 bp previously identified in <em>M. javanica. </em>This study confirms the use of an effective and reliable diagnosis of RKN using the three approaches.</p> Radwa G. Mostafa Aida M. El-Zawahry Ashraf E. M. Khalil Ameer E. Elfarash Ali D. A. Allam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 71 78 Selection of compost-derived actinomycetes with plant-growth promoting and tomato stem rot biocontrol potentialities <p>Seventeen actinomycetes isolates, recovered from 2 composts, were screened for their ability to promote the growth of tomato seedlings and to suppress stem rot disease caused by <em>Sclerotium rolfsii</em>. Tomato cv. Rio Grande seedlings inoculated with <em>S. rolfsii</em> and treated with A2-3, A3-3, A4-3, A5-3, A8-3, A9-3, A1-4, A2-4, A3-4, A4-4, A6-4, and A10-4 actinobacterial isolates showed 23.3-70% less disease severity than the inoculated and untreated controls. A3-3, A2-4, and A4-4 based treatments applied to <em>S. rolfsii</em>-infected tomato seedlings had significantly enhanced all growth parameters as compared to control. The recorded increments were estimated at 35.52-66.6% for height, 37.4-53.4% for the stem diameter, 38.5-95.6% for the aerial part dry weight, and 81.8-151% for the root dry weight. Treatments with A3-3 and A4-4 isolates had increased the majority of tomato growth parameters by 15.8-56.5% over the pathogen-free control. Tomato seedlings treated with A4-3 and A1-4 isolates showed between 35.2-22.8% and 42.3-43.3% higher aerial part dry weight and root dry weight, respectively, as compared to pathogen-free and untreated control. This investigation demonstrated that the tested composts can be explored as potential sources for the isolation of actinomycetes acting as biocontrol and bio-fertilizing agents.</p> Fakher Ayed Rania Aydi-Ben Abdallah Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine Mejda Daami-Remadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-28 2021-11-28 79 91 Efficacy of biological therapies against onion basal rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae under field and storage conditions <p>Basal rot disease of onion is caused by <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>cepae </em>(Hans.) (FOC) economically significant losses wherever onion is grown.&nbsp; <em>Fusarium oxysporum </em>were isolated from diseased onion cultivated in different places of Assiut, Egypt. Efficacy of certain yeasts was evaluated for controlling the basal rot of onion <em>in vitro</em>. Among of the tested isolates, <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> gave the greatest inhibition (57.74%) and <em>Candida tropicalis </em>(1) significantly exerted the greatest reduction of mycelial growth of <em>F. oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>cepae </em>(51.18%)<em>.</em> Based on the <em>in vitro</em> screening, effective yeasts were evaluated under greenhouse, field and storage conditions. Yeasts were applied by two methods (add the pathogen and antagonistic yeasts to soil before sowing seedling onion, and seedling onion soaking in yeasts for 20 minute). Both methods of inoculation showed substantial impact on disease development and plant growth. Add method caused maximum reduction in plant germination, followed by soaking method as compared to control. Application of fungicide (Captain) as compared brought a remarkable increase in seedling emergence of treated plants inoculated with <em>F. oxysporum</em> as compared to the untreated plants. In conclusion, tested yeasts were useful as an alternative to chemical control of the onion basal rot and to enhanced growth and yield of onion.</p> Hoda A. M. Ahmed Zeinab Soliman Mohamed A. Khalil Sayed B. M. Fawaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-28 2021-11-28 92 105