Screening and pathogenicity of soil-borne fungal communities in relationship with organically amended soils cultivated by watermelon in Tunisia
AbstractSoil mycoflora analysis from cucurbits showed remarkable diversity A total of 180 soil samples were collected from experimental field treated with four doses of organic amendments (0, 20, 40, 60 tons per hectare) and cultivated by five cucurbits (watermelon, grafted watermelon, muskmelon, grafted muskmelon and squash) to determining number of soil-borne fungi. This study aimed to isolate and identify the mesophilic and thermophilic fungi from soil and to evaluate their pathogenicity. The highest number of CFUs was recorded in the fertilized soil samples with 60 tons per hectare, compared with control and amended soil with 20 tons for mesophilic (30°C) or thermophilic (45°C) fungi. The CFUs values of soil samples fertilized with 60 tons/ ha of organic manure varied from 23.554 x 105 per gram of soil (melon seedlings) to 18.598 x 105 (grafted watermelon seedlings), for the total number of mesophilic fungi, and from 23.697 x 103 (melon seedlings) to 9.993 x 103 (grafted watermelon seedlings) for all the identified thermophilic fungi. The use of 60 tons per hectare of organic amendments was the most suppressive dose, with 0.34% of the total number of mesophilic pathogenic fungi.. Thirty-six species belonging to 17 genera were identified for the two fungi types. The genera with the highest number of species were Aspergillus sp. (9) and Penicillium sp. (4). According to pathogenicity test, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani are the most virulent on watermelon plants.
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